Global_Environmental_Research_Vol.27No.1
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This study reviewed previous studies and compiled several pieces of information to address how existing and current policies on vegetation fire events affect air quality and its influence on health in upper northern Thailand. It also examined the need for priority research and information related to policies on fire events and their effects on health. This study found that strict regulations had a significant impact on both air pollution and health impacts once they were implemented. However, they had low effectiveness, as PM concentrations and the health burden have remained the same during the past decade. Air pollution from vegetation fire events had short-term negative health impacts on the people living in UNT, but there was no evidence of chronic effects. Future studies should consider longer-term interventions by policies and integrate the factors that might affect exposure levels when examining the beneficial effects of policies on health outcomes. 3.2.2 Effects of Policies on Burning on Health Study period Implemented policy 2007 NA 2005–2006 NA 2014–2017 NA 2002–2016 Haze control measures (2008–2011) 2015–2018 NA 2016–2018 NA 2014–2018 NA 2014–2018 Burning ban in forest areas (2016) NA Aug.–Sep. 2017 and Feb.– Mar. 2018 Exposure assessment Health outcome PM10 Influenza PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO 1) Peak expiratory flow rates 2) Symptoms in asthmatics Binary indicator of intensive burning Hospital visits for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases Mortality PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO Birth weight: 1) Continuous variable 2.) Binary variable of low birth weight (< 2,500 grams) Mortality PM10 and fire hotspot count PM2.5 and PM10 PM10 (burning days identified) Hospital visits by children PM10 Hospital visits for respiratory diseases Respiratory infections PM10 and O3 4. Conclusions Methods Correlation test Panel study 1) General linear mixed regression 2) Generalized estimating equations Time series analysis with generalized linear regression Time- stratified case-crossover analysis fitted with conditional logistic regression Semi-ecological study design with 1) linear and 2) logistic regression Time series analysis with generalized linear regression Time-stratified case-crossover analysis fitted with conditional logistic regression Interrupted time series analysis Multilevel logistic regression Key findings Neutral correlation 1) Positive association 2) Null association Positive association Non-significant reduction in health outcomes 1) Reverse association 2) Null association Positive association Positive association Significant reduction in health outcomes Positive association Table 3 Summary of studies on the effects of air pollution from burning events and policies on human health. Author (year) Location Wiwanitkit (2008) Wiwatanadate and Liwsrisakun (2011) Chiang Mai, Thailand Chiang Mai, Thailand Mueller et al. (2020) Northern Thailand Vajanapoom et al. (2020) Chiang Mai, Thailand Mueller et al. (2021) All provinces in Thailand, except for Bangkok Pothirat et al. (2021) Chiang Mai, Thailand Uttajug et al. (2021) Northern Thailand Uttajug et al. (2022) Northern Thailand Prapamontol et al. (2023) Northern Thailand Among the nine epidemiological studies, two were conducted to investigate the effects of policies on vegetation fire events on health outcomes. A study conducted by Vajanapoom and her team found a non-significant the implementation of haze control measures during 2008–2011 (Vajanapoom et al., 2020). Another study reported a significant reduction in hospital visits due to respiratory diseases when a policy banning burning in forest areas was enforced in 2016 (Uttajug et al., 2022b). reduction Based on the above findings, additional research is needed to investigate the effects of longer term programs to regulate vegetation fire events on health outcomes. Moreover, the role of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on exposure and health should be considered together with environmental policies in future studies. This integration may be important in reducing exposure to air pollution at the community and individual levels (Giles et al., 2011). Policy Impacts on Vegetation Fire, Air Quality, and Human Health in Thailand: A Review Outcomes after in mortality 65

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