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64 3.2 Priority Research and Information Needs that Can Better Prepare Managers, Policymakers and the Public to Reach Informed Decisions Related to Air Pollution from Vegetation Fire Events on Human Health. The findings from this study’s literature review are categorized into two groups: health effects from air pollution due to vegetation fire events, and effects of fire produce alternative energy rather than just burning them (Kumar et al., 2020). However, none of the reviewed studies reported the effects of these policies on air pollution. Arunrat and his colleagues suggested that implementing an integrated farming system could reduce PM2.5 emissions by reducing burning activities (Arunrat et al., 2018). These policies may have reduced fire events in UNT, as the number of fire hotspots decreased from 2012 to 2016. However, neither PM2.5 nor PM10 concentrations changed during this period (Fig. 1). In mid-May 2016, the policy on vegetation fires was strictly enforced and implemented. The National Reserved Forest Act was amended to impose severe penalties and sanctions for violations of the ban on burning in forest areas (Office of the Council of State of Thailand, 2016). In addition, zero-burning and restricted burning periods were also strictly applied in other land used in UNT (e.g., agricultural land). Figure 1 shows that the number of fire hotspots, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations and the number of mortalities attributable to PM2.5 decreased in the year after the strict policy was implemented. Yabueng and her colleagues in PM2.5 concentrations after the legal enforcement (Yabueng et al., 2020). PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, however, increased after 2017, despite some measures being implemented, such as allowing the use of reserved forests for living, addressing dust pollution problems and managing the sugarcane preharvest (Fig. 1). also reported The main conclusion from the existing and current policies on vegetation fire events to reduce air pollution is that policies that were strictly implemented and legally enforced were effective in reducing burning activities, air pollution and health impacts. These policies may not be sustainable, however, as the number of fire hotspots and PM2.5 and PM10 levels increased subsequently. The low effectiveness of these policies may be due to a lack of details on enforcement, or low participation by the people. Moreover, policies on vegetation fire events targeting different settings should be considered for reducing air pollution and its health impacts. The studies reviewed focused mostly on policies related to crop and agricultural burning practices (e.g., rice and sugarcane). A previous study, however, showed forest fires to be the main source of PM emissions in UNT (Phairuang et al., 2017). Policies and actions that prioritize specific dominant areas where burning occurs might have a greater impact on air pollution and human health. reduction a A. UTTAJUG 3.2.1 Health Effects from Air Pollution Due to Vegetation Fire Events policies on health outcomes. Table 3 summarizes nine studies examining the effects of air pollution from fire events and policies on human health. In this section, exposure assessment and health outcomes from the reviewed studies are summarized and data/research gaps are identified. All of the studies used continuous air pollution concentration data in their analyses, but they differed in how they defined air pollution from vegetation fires. Most studies used a temporal indicator to assume that air pollution was mainly from fire events during specific periods (Wiwanitkit, 2007; Mueller et al., 2020; Uttajug et al., 2022; Prapamontol et al., 2023). Some studies used fire hotspot data from satellites (Mueller et al., 2021), or a threshold value of PM10 combined with fire hotspots (Uttajug et al., 2021). The remaining studies performed analyses using air pollution concentrations without defining how they assessed exposure to vegetation fire events (Wiwatanadate and Liwsrisakun, 2011; Vajanapoom et al., 2020; Pothirat et al., 2021). For the health outcomes, short-term exposure and long-term exposure were considered in this study as different to weeks, long-term: months to years) and health outcomes of interest. The findings revealed that eight studies were conducted to examine short-term effects of exposure to air pollution from fire events using symptom diagnosis, surveys, surveillance, hospital visits and mortality. Only one study investigated the long-term effects of exposure to air pollution from fire events using birth weight as a health outcome (Mueller et al., 2021). The findings showed that most of the studies focused on short-term health effects, but a few explored the long-term effects of exposure to air pollution from vegetation fire events. A previous study reported a high incidence of lung cancer in the northern region compared to other regions of Thailand (Virani et al., 2017). Smoking and air pollution are well-known risk factors for lung cancer. Despite a decreasing trend in smoking in Thailand (Aungkulanon et al., 2019), the northern area still has a higher incidence of lung cancer. So far, however, no studies have examined the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution from vegetation fire events on lung cancer in this region. Understanding the role of air pollution from burning on inform policymakers and prompt preventative health policies in the area. Based on this gap in the findings, there is a need for cohort data, as well as an accurate and comprehensive assessment of exposure to air pollution from vegetation fire events in UNT. in duration (short-term: hours the cancer burden may help

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