Table 2 Summary of studies on existing and current policies or measures to reduce air pollution from vegetation fire events. Lualon et al. (2013) Yabueng et al. (2020) Junpen et al. (2020) 3. Results and Discussion Author (year) Implemented policy Eight-point plan (enforced) Kumar et al. (2020) Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP) (enforced) Crop-residue management (suggested) Control of open burning (enforced) Arunrat et al. (2018) Preharvest sugarcane treatment (enforced) NA: Not reported Fig. 1 Timeline of major policies/measures implemented to address vegetation fires, environmental factors and health impacts in upper northern Thailand from 2012 to 2021. It should be noted that mortality attributable to PM2.5 before 2012 was not estimated due to lack of PM concentration measurements. The daily average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 and numbers of mortalities attributable to PM2.5 were estimated for January to April of each year. Year of implementation 2013 Implementation of several actions to reduce smoke haze such as promoting villages free from burning, establishing an early warning, etc. Using crop residues for alternative energy instead of burning them. 2012 Implementation of an integrated farming system, which might result in less burning. 2016 Strict implementation of the burning ban and legal enforcement of the policy 2019 Change of cutting conditions during harvest from burned sugarcane to fresh sugarcane. Details Effects on air pollution NA NA Reduced PM2.5 emissions Reduction in the number of fire hotspots and PM emissions, but prolonged periods of burning still exist Reduced air pollution emissions in the first year of implementation fire events found five studies (Table 2). Four of them described policies that had been implemented and some of them reported their effects on air pollution (Junpen et al., 2020; Kumar et al., 2020; Lualon et al., 2013; Yabueng et al., 2020). One study proposed alternative measures to reduce air pollution from crop residue burning (Arunrat et al., 2018). 3.1 Existing and Current Policies or Measures to Reduce Air Pollution from Vegetation Fire Events. A search for policies or measures on vegetation Figure 1 shows how the data on policies on vegetation fire events, environmental information and health impacts from 2012 to 2021 was integrated in UNT. According the Pollution Control Department (PCD), several policies on vegetation fire events had been enforced in UNT since 2004. A national to a report from Policy Impacts on Vegetation Fire, Air Quality, and Human Health in Thailand: A Review haze action plan was launched in 2004 to control open burning, but there were no data on air pollution during that period. We could not estimate the pre-2012 mortality because of the missing PM concentration data. Also, this study only examined the main policies adopted to deal with vegetation fires over time, without monitoring their actual implementation. Thus, the effects on air quality and health outcomes may have been affected by a combination of different policies or actions. In 2012, the PCD adopted the Eight-Point Plan, which included a variety of actions for reducing smoke haze from fire events. The plan involved measures such as banning the burning of agricultural residues for 80 days, preventing forest fires, promoting “burn-free villages,” engaging in corporate social responsibility programs and establishing an early warning haze system among others (Lualon et al., 2013). The Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP) was also introduced to encourage the use of crop residues to 63

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