52 geographic and environmental settings, and collaborative research culture. Meanwhile, region, particularly Southeast Asia, was not extensively represented in the studies, with only 14 out of the 57 (24.56%) articles focusing on countries considered part of the global south. This is likely due to limited research resources, absence of comprehensive air quality monitoring networks (save for Thailand where station monitors are abundant) (Cândido Da Silva et al., 2014; Mueller et al., 2021; Othman et al., 2022; Pothirat, et al. 2021), and lack of collaborative opportunities and partnerships. Additionally, only four articles out of the 19 (7.02%) that employed direct monitors were also focused on countries considered in the global south. The results from the different modeling methods used can be seen in Fig. 2, alongside the geographical distribution of these studies in Fig. 3. the Pacific Fig. 2 Venn diagram of air quality modelling methods. Fig. 3 Articles by region/location. S. VALENZUELA et al. 3.2 Station Monitoring Station monitoring is widely considered the gold standard for air quality information in most developed countries. This involves the use of devices that directly detect air quality within their vicinity. Station monitoring offers the advantage of directly measuring highly accurate data at a more local level, allowing for long-term and reliable data for air quality (Holloway et al., 2021; Xie et al., 2017). The disadvantage of station monitoring is that it is limited by the number and placement of the stations, as well as the quality of the measuring devices themselves. They are often sparsely distributed over urban areas due to high initial and maintenance costs, thereby limiting possible areas for real-time mapping and assessment. This is especially true in rural areas where vegetation and open burning usually occurs (Adams and Kanaroglou, 2016; Holloway et al., 2021; Mueller et al., 2021; Xie et al., 2017). The density of monitoring stations

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