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50 mental health displacement. impacts stemming from Biomass burning, including forest fires, wildfires, agricultural fires, residential energy production and waste burning, is the main source of air pollution in several countries like Canada, Africa, South America, Australia, Europe and Southeast Asia. Humans are responsible for about “90% of biomass burning with only a small percentage of natural fires contributing to the total amount of vegetation burned” (Chen et al., 2017; Karanasiou et al., 2021). In Southeast Asia, the practice of biomass burning is widely used for both occupational and non-occupational functions, most especially in rural areas (Amnuaylojaroen and Parasin, 2023). In Indonesia, agricultural burning destroyed almost a quarter of the country’s forests in 20 years (Sheldon and Sankaran, 2017). However, practical use of biomass burning has also led to a significant rise in vegetation fires across multiple Southeast Asian countries. From 2000 to 2010, Myanmar and Laos for instance experienced an increase in fire hotspots by 471% and 2383%, respectively, according to a study by Amnuaylojaroen and Parasin (2023). The same study noted that Vietnam also experienced a significant increase of 777.2% from 2000 to 2020, while Thailand demonstrated a relatively stable number of fire hotspots, even experiencing a small decrease of 10% from 2010 to 2020. A peak increase in these emissions seems to occur early each year in Southeast Asia (Khodmanee and Amnuaylojaroen, 2021; Amnuaylojaroen et al., 2023). Regardless of the source, biomass burning has become a significant cause of air pollution, with global, regional and local impacts on air quality and public health. Airborne particulate matter (PM) and ground-level ozone have been largely demonstrated as key contributors to the global burden of mortality and disease (Sorek-Hamer et al., 2020; Vohra et al., 2021). In 2019, 4.2 million premature deaths were attributed to ambient outdoor air pollution, with 89% of these coming from the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific (World Health Organization, 2022). Previous reviews have reported positive associations between wildfire smoke exposure and respiratory health effects, specifically exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Adrianto et al., 2019; Albertson et al., 2010; Johnson et al., 2020; Oliveri et al., 2017). There is also a growing body of research linking ambient air pollution to cardiovascular health outcomes (Johnson et al., 2020; Karanasiou et al., 2021). Certain demographic groups, including children, the elderly and individuals with pre-existing health conditions, have been found to be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of air pollution (Albertson et al., 2010; Karanasiou et al., 2021). trauma and regions S. VALENZUELA et al. 1.2 Rationale for the Scoping Review Air pollution modeling has emerged as an indispensable tool in predicting and estimating public health outcomes attributable to biomass burning, especially within the changing landscape of climate trends. These models offer the dispersion of pollutants, assess exposure levels and project the spatial and temporal distribution of health impacts. Exposure assessments for PM have been limited by the availability of ground monitoring stations; hence, technology has led to the innovation of methods of estimating air pollution using atmospheric, chemical and satellite modeling to more accurately depict temporal and spatial variations, demonstrate historical associations, and predict future health outcomes (Johns et al., 2012; Sorek-Hamer et al., 2020). However, it is disconcerting to note such modeling endeavors have been predominantly concentrated in the global north, often neglecting affected by regions disproportionately vegetation or wildfires in the global south. that From an equity standpoint, the burden of increasing biomass burning is disproportionately shouldered by disadvantaged communities. Anthropogenic activities in agriculturally-producing countries and ideal tropical weather conditions have shaped fire-prone land conditions, especially in Africa and Southeast Asia (Liu et al., 2015; Reddington et al., 2021; Ren et al., 2021; Taylor, 2010). Climate change threatens to extend and increase the severity of biomass burning through prolonged droughts, increased greenhouse gas emissions and other instabilities in ecosystems (i.e., changes fertility) (Reddington et al., 2021; Taylor, 2010). Similarly, marginalized populations living in wildfire-prone regions, often with limited access to resources and infrastructure, are at a greater disadvantage. Their ability to evacuate safely, access healthcare or recover from the aftermath of wildfires is severely constrained (Liu et al., 2015; Thomas et al., 2022). In fact, the annual mortality in low- to middle-income countries is predicted to increase by more than 100% by 2060 (Holloway et al., 2021). This stark geographical disparity in air pollution modeling has not only hindered a comprehensive impacts but also understanding of public health contributed to knowledge gaps in assessing the consequences of biomass burning on marginalized communities. Consequently, these communities remain disproportionately vulnerable, with inadequate data and resources to address the impending threats posed by both biomass burning and climate change. This scoping review aims to explore the current and emerging approaches for assessing exposure to biomass burning and its use in establishing associations to public health outcomes. A clearer and disadvantages of these approaches in predicting specific health outcomes and public health impacts would benefit the capacity and marginalized in biodiversity, decreased understanding of to delineate soil advantages the

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