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A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment, Nairobi. Retrieved from resources/report/spreading-wildfire-rising-threat-extraordinary-landscape-fires (accessed 12 April 2023) World Bank (2015) Indonesia Economic Quarterly: Reforming Amid Uncertainty, December 2015. Jakarta. Retrieved from (accessed 7 May 2023) Wu, C., Huang, X.H.H., Ng, W.M., Griffith, S.M. and Yu, J.Z. (2016) Inter-comparison of NIOSH and IMPROVE protocols for OC and EC determination: implications for inter-protocol data conversion. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 9: 4547–4560. Wyzga, R.E. and Rohr, A.C. (2015) Long-term particulate matter exposure: Attributing health effects to individual PM components. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 65: 523−543. Yin, S. (2023) Effect of biomass burning on premature mortality associated with long-term exposure to PM2.5 in Equatorial Asia. Journal of Environmental Management, 330: 117154. Yulianti, N., Kusin, K., Naito, D., Kawasaki, M., Koza, O. and Susetyo, K.E. (2020) The linkage of El Niño-induced peat fires and its relation to current haze condition in Central Kalimantan. Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management, 8(2): 100−116. Zhang, X., Chen, X., Yue, Y., Wang, S., Zhao, B., Hunag, X., Li, T., Sun, Q. and Wang, J. (2023) Ecological study on global health effects due to source-specific ambient fine particulate matter exposure. Environmental Science & Technology, 57: 1278−1291. (Received 2 November 2023, Accepted 28 December 2023) Susumu TOHNO Susumu Tohno is a professor emeritus at Kyoto University, Japan. His research interests involve the dynamic state of atmospheric aerosols and comprehensive the hidden environmental and social impacts of the human activities on the basis of life-cycle thinking. He was the 16th president of the Japan Association of Aerosol Science and Technology (JAAST). evaluation of

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