38 et al. (2023) have discovered an intricate fire-weather feedback loop that increases air pollution exposure through smoke aerosols (aerosol-cloud interaction) in Mediterranean and monsoon climate regimes. The extensive fires have resulted in serious economic damage through its impact on various environmental and social services. For example, the economic loss from the extensive peatland fires and haze in 2015 was estimated at 16.1 million USD in Indonesia (Glauber et al., 2016). the radiative effects of Air pollution in the form of transboundary haze is an urgent issue in SEA. Gaining information on the physical and chemical properties of the aerosols from peatland fires is fundamental to assessing their impact on human health source apportionment of haze events, and unraveling their dynamic state in the environment (e.g., secondary aerosol formation). Aerosols from biomass burning, including from peatland fires, are mostly in fine size range (Reid et al., 2005). Human mortality due to exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) is generally calculated by an exposure-response function (Burnett et al., 2014) based on a multitude of epidemiological studies that have focused on long-term exposure effects (Pozzer et al., 2023). This risk dependency on PM2.5 mass concentration, independent of source or composition. An increasing number of studies, however, have suggested that sources and compositions of fine particles may significantly influence the health effects (Zhang et al., 2023). Unequal toxicity of individual PM2.5 components has been reported (Wyzga and Rohr, 2015; Park et al., 2018), and chemical composition is considered to be a major determinant of the toxicity of airborne PM (Shiraiwa et al., 2017). Chemical components of transboundary haze such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are critically important species that are relevant in health risk assessment71, 88 (Each superscript corresponds to a particular reference in the literature list in the separate dataset the Supplementary Information. There is also a list of abbreviations in the “Appendix” sheet in the dataset. The dataset is described at the end of this section and in the next section). include and the environment, function describes that can be found radiative Aerosol conducting relative the in effects Y. FUJII and S. TOHNO composition of haze (e.g., water-soluble ions and light-absorbing carbonaceous components) is one of the key parameters for evaluating its radiative effects. Knowing the physical and chemical properties of the haze from Indonesian peatland fires (below, “IPFs”) is indeed indispensable to assessing its human health and environmental impacts. It should be noted, however, that there exist complex interactions among environmental and socio-economic factors hidden behind these peatland fires (Sze et al., 2019; Shigetomi et al., 2020; Girkin et al., 2022; UNEP, 2022b). To manage and mitigate the fires’ risk to human health and livelihoods, biodiversity and the global climate, visualization of the interactions through a systemic lens is crucial. A “drivers, pressures, state, impact and response” (DPSIR) framework (Smeets and the Weterings, 1999) has been used relationship human (socio-economic) systems. We have mapped the DPSIR framework into the cause-effect chains of environmental problems associated with IPFs, as shown in Fig. 1. In the “state” element of the DPSIR framework, we have emphasized aerosols (haze) from IPFs, particularly their physical and chemical properties their position and interrelations with other components of the framework. Many field and direct aerosol-radiation through direct scattering and absorption of incoming solar and outgoing terrestrial (infrared) radiation in the atmosphere, and indirect aerosol-cloud interactions through alteration of cloud optical properties and the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) (Penner et al., 2001). Evaluating aerosol radiative forcing involves examining the physical (e.g., size distribution, optical properties, hygroscopicity) and chemical (e.g., water-solubility of inorganic components and organic carbon as CCN) properties of the aerosols. Therefore, the chemical Our research questions were fourfold: 1) What differences exist in chemical compositions between haze from IPFs and non-haze samples in SEA (source profiles and contributions of other sources, particularly at receptor sites), 2) What differences exist in chemical compositions between haze sampled at source and at receptor sites (unique source profiles if available, key source indicators and aging process of the haze), 3) Ways in which advanced in environmental between laboratory studies have been conducted to investigate the chemical characteristics of smoke haze from IPFs at source and receptor sites in SEA. Table S1 gives a summary of review papers relating to physical (not including optical properties) and chemical properties of haze from IPFs and other biomass burning, and source apportionment of PM (including contribution of IPFs, or IPF and other sources to PM concentrations) according to field observations in this region and laboratory studies based on combustion of Indonesian or Malaysian peat. Some papers also cover the climate, human health and economic impacts of the haze78, 99, 116. They do not refer, however, to laboratory studies and cutting-edge analysis, nor do they cover sufficient chemical species for impact assessment, source profiling or ascertaining the dynamic state, and limit their target area to a certain country. Fujii and Tohno104 carried out a narrative review focusing on the chemical compositions of IPF-derived aerosols based on field and laboratory studies and source apportionment of PM. Their review contained information on various species but not from a systematic perspective. techniques analytical in modelling and to ascertain applied are

元のページ  ../index.html#44