Global_Environmental_Research_Vol.27No.1
43/80

1. Introduction Tropical peatlands are globally and regionally important as carbon pools and carbon soil-atmosphere exchange process, and in provisioning ecosystem services of peat swamp forests (Page et al., 2011). The peatland area of Southeast Asia (below, “SEA”) covers 23.7 Mha, of which 20.7 Mha is in Indonesia (87.3%), followed by 2.59 Mha in Malaysia (Omar et al., 2022). Indonesia has either the world’s largest tropical peatland area (Joosten, 2009) or the world’s second largest tropical peatland area (UNEP, 2022a), and small-scale land management fires have been used for centuries in Indonesia (Simorangkir, 2007). However, anthropogenic activities such as forest degradation, the expansion of commodity crops including oil palm, and drainage of fire-prone peatlands have resulted in extensive peatland and forest fires in Indonesia. Uncontrollable, intense peatland fires have frequently Global Environmental Research 27/2023 37-48 printed in Japan 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531, Japan Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan Key words: chemical composition, haze, Indonesia, peatland fire, Southeast Asia Anthropogenic activities such as forest degradation; the expansion of commodity crops, including oil palm; and drainage of fire-prone peatlands have resulted in extensive peatland and forest fires in Indonesia. Uncontrollable and intense peatland fires have frequently occurred in the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan, particularly during the hot and dry seasons of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Air pollution in the form of transboundary haze is an urgent issue in Southeast Asia. The physical and chemical properties of the aerosols from peatland fires are fundamental to know when assessing their impact on human health and the environment, conducting source apportionment of haze events, and unraveling their dynamic state in the environment (e.g., secondary aerosol formation). In this paper, we conduct a holistic review of source profiles, key indicators of Indonesian peatland fires at source and receptor sites, and transformation of haze during its long-range transport (aging, secondary aerosol formation) as well as source apportionment in Southeast Asia, using a comprehensive chemical component dataset. Knowledge of the chemical characteristics of particulate matter at Indonesian peatland fire sources and receptor sites is still limited, especially regarding controlling factors (e.g., combustion conditions, peat composition and the effects of vegetative burning on peatland) that determine the Indonesian peatland fire source profile of particulate matter. Additionally, the process of secondary organic aerosol formation derived from Indonesian peatland fires during transport to receptor sites remains largely unresolved. Yusuke FUJII*1 and Susumu TOHNO*2 *1Osaka Metropolitan University *2Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University *1E-mail: fujii.yusuke@omu.ac.jp, *2E-mail: tohno@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp Abstract occurred in the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan, particularly during the hot and dry seasons of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, since the early 1980s (Field et al., 2016; Yulianti et al., 2020; UNEP, 2022b). The first catastrophic fire was in 1997 and subsequently, intense fires have occurred in 2006, 2013 (a non-drought year), 2015 and 2019. Four million six hundred thousand hectares of land in Indonesia burned in 2015 (Lohberger et al., 2018), and CO2 emissions from the peatland fire exceeded the total annual emissions of a developed nation as big as Japan for that year (World Bank, 2015; Field et al., 2016; Crump, 2017). In addition to vast carbon emissions affecting the global climate, large-scale smoke generation (transboundary haze pollution) degrades the regional air quality significantly in SEA, resulting in adverse impacts on both ecosystems and human health (Crippa et al., 2016; Koplitz et al., 2016; Cheong et al., 2019; Phung et al., 2022; Yin, 2023). Furthermore, Hunag ©2023 AIRIES 37 Chemical Properties of the Southeast Asian Haze from Indonesian Peatland Fires

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