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5. Conclusion hydrocarbons hydrocarbons. Chemical 5.1 Organic material that comes from plants and animals is converted not only to solid fuels but also to gas and liquid fuels. Biomass is attracting attention as a renewable energy source, because organic materials in biomass can be regenerated in a short time period from carbon dioxide, a global warming gas, in the atmosphere. 5.2 As mentioned in this report, combustion of this biomass produces various hazardous chemicals, including PAHs and their derivatives. It will be essential to develop technology to prevent these harmful substances from being released into the air, both outdoors and indoors. 5.3 On Al-Daghri, N.M., Alokail, M.S., Abd-Alrahman, S.H., Draz, H.M., Yakout, S.M. and Clerici, M. (2013) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure and pediatric asthma in children: a case- control study. Environmental Health, 12: 1. https://doi.org/ 10.1186/ 1476-069X-12-1 Anyenda, E.O., Higashi, T., Kambayashi, Y., Nguyen, T.T.T., Michigami, Y., Fujimura, M., Hara, J., Tsujiguchi, H., Kitaoka, M., Asakura, H., Hori, D., Yamada, Y., Hayashi, K., Hayakawa, K. and Nakamura, H. (2016) Associations of cough prevalence with ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrogen and sulphur dioxide: A longitudinal study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 800. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13080800 Brucker, N., Charão, M.F., Moro, A.M., Ferrari, P., Bubols, G., Sauer, E., Fracasso, R., Durgante, J., Thiesen, F.V., Duarte, M.M., Gioda, A., Castro, I. and Garcia, S.C. (2014) Atherosclerotic process in taxi drivers occupationally exposed to air pollution and co-morbidities. Environmental Research, 131: 31–38. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.envres.2014.02.012 Cathey, A.L., Watkins, D.J., Rosario, Z.Y., Vélez Vega, C.M., Loch, Caruso, R., Alshawabkeh, A.N., Cordero, J.F. and Meeker, J. D. (2020) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure results in altered CRH, reproductive, and thyroid hormone concentrations during human pregnancy. Science of The Total Environment, 749: 141581. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141581 Chen, Y., Du, W., Shen, G., Zhuo, S., Zhu, X., Shen, H., Huang, Y., Su, S., Lin, N., Pei, L., Zheng, X., Wu, J., Duan, Y., Wang, X., Liu, W., Wong, M. and Tao, S. (2017) Household air pollution and personal exposure to nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatics (PAHs) in rural households: Influence of household cooking energies. Indoor Air, 27: 169–178. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/ina.12300 Chuesaard, T., ThanChetiyanukornkul, T., Kameda, T., Hayakawa, References the other hand, although Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Vegetation Burning and Health Effects restrictions on incineration of post-harvest crop residues have been implemented in developed countries, it is still practiced in developing countries. In addition, forest fires occur frequently around the world, and the number of such fires has been increasing due to global warming. These also raise the atmospheric concentration of PAHs and their derivatives over wide areas—a big problem. K. and Toriba, A. (2014) Influence of biomass burning on the levels of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their nitro derivatives in Chiang Mai, Thailand, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 14: 1247–1257. https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr. 2013.05.0161 de Oliveira Galvao., de Oliveira Alves, N., Ferreira, P., Caumo, S., de Castro Vasconcellos, P., Artaxo, P., de Souza Hacon, S., Roubicek, D. and de Medeiros, S. (2018) Biomass burning particles in the Brazilian Amazon region: Mutagenic effects of nitro and oxy-PAHs and assessment of health risks. Environmental Pollution, 233: 960–970. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.envpol.2017. 09.068 Hara, A., Odajima, H., Matsuzaki, H., Fujimura, M., Toma, T., Wada, T., Ohkura, N., Pham, K.O., Suzuki, K., Tsujiguchi, H., Takami, A., Hayakawa, K. and Nakamura, H. (2022) Association between cough and ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in patients with chronic cough: an observational study in two regions of Japan. Applied Sciences, 12: 12505. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/app122412505 Hayakawa, K., Onoda, Y., Tachikawa, C., Hosoi, S., Yoshita, M., Chung, S. W., Kizu, R., Toriba, A., Kameda, T. and Tang, N. (2007) Estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their monohydroxylated derivatives by yeast two-hybrid assay. Journal of Health Science, 53: 562–570. https://doi.org/ 10.1248/jhs.53.562 Hayakawa, K. (2016) Review: Environmental behaviors and and toxicities of and nitropolycyclic Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 64: 83–94. https://doi.org/10.1248/ cpb.c15-00801 Hayakawa, K., Tang, N., Toriba, A. and Nagato, E.G. (2020) Calculating sources of combustion-derived particulates using 1-nitropyrene and pyrene as markers. Environmental Pollution, 265 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol. 2020.114730 Part B: Hayakawa, K., Tang, N., Matsuki, A., Inomata, Y., Toriba, A. and Nagato, E.G. (2021) Calculating source contributions to urban atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using 1-nitropyrene and pyrene: An application to an Asian dust event. Chemosphere, 2020: 130662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. chemo sphere. 2021.130662 IARC (2021) List of classifications agents classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1–129. Retrieved from: https://monographs.iarc.who.int/ist-of-classifications (accessed 28 August 2023) Iinuma, Y., Brüggemann, E., Gnauk, T., Müller, K., Andreae, M., Helas, G., Parmar, R. and Herrmann, H. (2007) Source characterization of biomass burning particles: The combustion of selected European conifers, African hardwood, savanna grass, and German and Indonesian peat. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 112: D08209. https://doi.org/10.1029/ 2006JD007120 Kitanovski, Z., Shahpoury, P., Samara, C., Voliotis, A. and Lammel, G. (2020) Composition and mass size distribution of nitrated and oxygenated aromatic compounds in ambient particulate matter from southern and central Europe—Implications for the origin. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 20: 2471–2487. https://doi. org/10.5194/ acp-20-2471-2020 Kumagai, Y., Arimoto, T., Shinyashiki, M., Shimojyo, N., Nakai, Y., Yoshikawa, T. and Sagai, M. (1997) Generation of reactive oxygen species during interaction of diesel exhaust particle components with NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and involvement of the bioactivation in the DNA damage. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 22: 479–487. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S0891-5849(96)00341-3 polycyclic aromatic aromatic 114730. 19

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