Global_Environmental_Research_Vol.27No.1
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PAHQs m-3), 1-NP (46 pg m-3) and levoglucosan (2963 ng m-3) in winter were higher than those in summer. 18 Abbreviations of PAHs and Their Derivatives fuels causes indoor air pollution (Kitanovski et al., 2020; Chen et al., 2017; Orakij, 2017). These are summarized in Table 2. PAHs, OHPAHs and QPAHs and NPAHs were found characteristic. As a marker of vegetation fires, levoglucosan was decreasing Table 2 Environmental Studies on PAHs and OPAHs from vegetation fires. Outdoor SPM in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in dry and wet seasons Indoor PM (5 fractions) in rural areas, China PAHs NPAHs OHPAHs Sample PM in suburban area of Hanoi, Vietnam PM10- in Grenoble, France in winter PM10 in Amazon, Brazil, in dry and wet seasons SPM (6 fractions less than 10 µm) in Thessaloniki, Greece, in winter PM2.5, in Thailand PM2.5 from kangs and stoves under heating scenarios determined. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthene (Ace), fluorene (Fle), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant), Fluoranthene (Flu), pyrene (Pyr), benz[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (Chr), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA), benzo[ghi]perylene (BgPe), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IDP) nitrated PAHs (NPAHs), 1-, 2-, 4-nitropyrene (1-, 2-, 4-NP), 1,3-, 1,6-, 1,8-dinitropyrene (1,3-, 1,6-, 1,8-DNP), 1-, 10-nitrobenzanthrone (1-, 10-NBA), 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 2-, 9-nitroanthracene (2-, 9-NA), 5-nitroacenaphthene (5-NAc), 4-, 9-nitrophenanthrene (2-, 9-NPh), 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NFL), 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene (7-NBaA), 2-nitrotriphenylene (2-NTP), 6-nitrochrysene (6-NC), 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene (6-NBaP), 1-, 3-nitroperylene (1-, 3-NPer) halogenated PAHs (XPAHs), hydroxylated PAHs (OHPAHs), 1-, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (1-, 2-OHNap), 1-, 2-, 3-hydroxyfluoranthene (1-, 2-, 3-OHFlu), 1-, 2-, 3-, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-, 2-, 3-, 9-OHPhe), 1-, 2-, 3-hydroxypyrene (1-, 2-, 3-OHPyr), 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHBaP), 6-hydroxychrysene (6-OHChr), 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHBaP) 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (2-MBQ), 2,5- and 2,6-dimethylbenzoquinones (2,5- and 2,6-DMBQ), tetramethylbenzoquinone (TMBQ), 1,2- and 1,4-naphtoquinones (1,2- and 1,4-NQ), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-MNQ), acenaphthoquinone (AceNQ), 1,4- and 9,10-phenanthrenequinones (1,4- and 9,10-PQ), 1,4- and 9,10-anthraquinones (1,4- and 9,10-AQ), 1,6-, 1,8- and 4,5-pyrenequinones (1,6-,1,8- and 4,5-PyrQ), fluoranthene-2,3-quinone (2,3- FluQ), aceanthraquinone (AceAQ), 1,4- and 5,6-chrysenequinones (1,4- and 5,6-CQ), 5,12-naphthacenequinone (5,12-NapQ), benzo[c]phenanthrene-5,6-quinone (5,6-BcPQ), 7,12-benzanthraquinone (7,12-BAQ), benzo[e]pyrene-4,5-quinone (4,5- BePQ), benzo[a]pyrene-1,6-, -3,6-, -4,5-, -6,12- and -11,12-quinones (1,6-, -3,6-, -4,5-, -6,12- and -11,12- BaPQ), dibenzo[a,j]anthracene-7,14-quinone (7,14-DBajAQ) and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene-5,6-quinone (5,6-DBahAQ) Analyzed Compound Source Forest fire and agricultural burning 10PAHs, 19NPAHs Rice straw open burning 9PAHs, 4NPAHs Residential heating 21PAHs, 32NPAHs, 27OPAHs, levoglucosan Forest fire 11NPAHs, 4OPAHs Residential heating 11NPAHs, 7OPAHs Cooking 10PAHs, 4OPAHs Cooking 10PAHs, 11OPAHs, levoglucosan Biomass (6 types) and coal (4 types) burning 22PAHs, 7alkyl PAHs, 12NPAHs 10OPAHs The 1. ΣPAH (4.1 ng m-3) and ΣNPAH (523 pg m-3) in dry season > ΣPAH (0.70 ng m-3) and ΣNPAH (40.6 pg m-3) in wet season 2. The larger [BaP]/[BgPe] in dry season suggested vegetation fire and the larger [1-NP]/[Pyr] in wet season suggested vehicles. 1. ΣPAH (4488 ng m-3) and ΣNPAH (288 µg m-3) in burning period > ΣPAH (14 ng m-3) and ΣNPAH(25 µg m-3) in background period 2. ΣPAH > ΣNPAH 3. Secondary formation of 2-NF and 2-NP 1. ΣPAH > ΣOPAH > ΣNPAH 2. 2-Methylnaphthalene (48.6 ng m-3), 2-methylfluoranthene (0.4 ng 3. Secondary formation of 2-NF and 2-NP 1. ΣPAH > ΣNPAH 2. 2-Methylanthraquinon (260 pg m-3) and 1-NP (0.125 ng m-3) in intense vegetation fire period were higher than 2-methylanthraquinon (70 ng m-3) and 1-NP(70 pg m-3) in moderate vegetation fire period. 1. ΣQPAH (47–1636 and 858–4306 pg m-3) > ΣNPAH (≤ 90 and 76–578 pg m-3) 2. Distribution dependent on PM size. 1. ΣPAH > ΣNPAH 2. 1-Nitronaphthale: Kitchen (0.80 ng m-3) and living room (0.26 ng m-3) > outdoor (0.13 ng m-3) 3. Benzanthrone: Kitchen (106 ng m-3) > living room (21 ng m-3) 4. Biomass > LPG 1. ΣPAH (9980 ng m-3) > ΣNPAH (18700 pg m-3) 2. Cooking period > noncooking period 3. The carcinogenic risks exceeded the WHO guideline values. 1. ΣPAH (32.3–279 mg kg-1) > ΣOPAH (5.18–42.5 mg kg-1) > ΣNPAH (37.4–343 µg kg-1). type. 2. Compositions of PAHs and derivatives were not affected by fuel K. HAYAKAWA concentration order of [PAHs] > [QPAHs] > [OPAHs] > [NPAHs] and the smaller [1-NP]/[[Pyr] concentration ratio were often observed in air carrying emissions from vegetation fires. Characteristics Ref. Chuesaard et al., 2014 Pham et al., 2019 Tomaz et al., 2017 de Oliveira Galvao et al., 2018 Kitanovski et al., 2020 Chen et al., 2017 Orakij et al., 2017 Zhang et al., 2021

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