Global_Environmental_Research_Vol.27No.1
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1. Introduction Air pollution increases mortality and morbidity. The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that the combined effects of ambient air pollution and household air pollution are associated with 6.7 million premature deaths annually (WHO, 2018). World coal and oil consumption has steadily increased since the industrial revolution. The WHO has reported recently that air pollution is very serious in the Western Pacific region (WHO, 2023). Fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum account for a large proportion of the world’s primary energy consumption. In this region, biomass is also an important fuel both indoors and outdoors. Moreover, slash-and-burn farming, forest fires, habits such as smoking, and incense burning also increase personal exposure to air pollutants. 2. PAHs and Their Derivatives Global Environmental Research 27/2023 13-20 printed in Japan Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192, Japan E-mail: hayakawa@p.kanazawa-u.ac.jp Key words: health effect, nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Air pollution now causes several million deaths each year. Among air pollutants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, such as nitro-, hydroxy- and quinoid PAHs attract much attention. These pollutants are emitted through burning processes of fossil fuels and vegetation, and exist in gas and particle phases in the air. Despite their strong adverse health effects, including lung cancer, asthma and endocrine disruption, their outdoor and indoor air pollution levels have not been reduced quickly worldwide. Recently, biomass has become popular as a renewable energy source that does not increase the atmospheric concentration of global carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas implicated in global warming. On the other hand, there are still many areas in developing countries where slash-and-burn farming is practiced, and forest fires have been increasing rapidly worldwide. Therefore, sufficient attention is needed to the health effects of PAHs and related compounds generated from these sources. The aim of this report is to describe the emission and distribution of PAHs and their derivatives in outdoor and indoor air and their health effects, focusing on vegetation fires. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, vegetation burning Among air pollutants, polycyclic Kazuichi HAYAKAWA Abstract 2.1 PAHs, NPAHs, QPAHs and OHPAHs effects, including carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. PAHs contain two or more 4- to 6-carbon fused rings, of which the benzene-ring structure is the most common. This report focuses on PAHs and their derivatives emitted from vegetation fires and describes adverse health effects resulting from human exposure. Many kinds of PAHs and their derivatives, such as NPAHs, hydroxylated PAHs (OHPAHs), quinoid PAHs (QPAHs) and halogenated PAHs (XPAHs), are produced through incomplete combustion of organic materials and secondary atmospheric reactions. In this report, the OHPAHs and QPAHs are classed among the oxy-PAHs (OPAHs). During combustion processes, particulate matter (PM), i.e., soot, is also formed. In the air, two- and three-aromatic ring PAHs occur mainly in the gas phase, five- and higher-ring PAHs are bound to particles (particle phase), and four-ring PAHs are found in both phases. PAH derivatives also exist in both phases in a similar manner to aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, such as nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs), are known to be generated by incomplete combustion of organic substances and to induce various adverse health ©2023 AIRIES 13 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Vegetation Burning and Health Effects

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